The flow of fluid from high pressure region to low pressure area or partial vacuum is called suction. The matter is pushed to low pressure area due to pressure gradient between partial vacuum area and ambient pressure. Suction pumps have been used for centuries now as the first pump had been invented by Egyptian engineer Ctesibius in 3rd century BCE. A suction pump uses the concept of suction to push or pull or regulate a movement of fluid. Suction pumps using the concept of suction created by a piston that moves through a cylinder help raise liquid levels. It is also used to prevent any damages caused from overflowing in containers.
On the commercial and industrial use of suction pumps:
As said earlier a suction pump has been in use for transferring liquid from one area to another from olden times.
- Modern electric pumps for moving oils and chemicals as well as old hand pumps for pulling water, all varieties of suction pumps use vacuum power for performing all kinds of easy and difficult work.
- The simplest and the most ancient types of pumps were used by Romans and are still used today.
- In this method of pressure pumping, a seal is created which ensures water reaches out of a spigot. Although the simplest form of pumps is used in the 21st century, a lot of development has been made.
- This is especially used nowadays in arid regions where the level of groundwater must be brought up, with levels of water rising to the sub-surface level. This ensures better water circulation for agriculture and irrigation facilities.
Different Types of Pumps
- End-suction or single suction pump: The principle behind the functioning of this single stage pump is when the pump starts; the pump shaft makes impeller to move high-speed rotary and this forces blade to rotate by forcing pre-filling fluid. A low pressure is created in the center of an impeller and with the impact of total static pressure; fluid is sucked in from a storage tank. End suction pumps are a modern take on traditional pumps. This kind of pump is used for a household purpose to draw water and industrial purpose to transport various liquids.
- Double-suction pump: Double suction pumps consist of two back-to-back impellers. Double suction pumps have entry and exit end in the same direction which helps in the installation of pumps and water pipes. Symmetrical impeller structure and non-axial force allow the pump to work smoothly and cause mass flow and high lift of liquid.
- As the pump has high caliber it can be used for wide range of industries. This kind of pump is used in chemical industry, mining, firefighting waterworks, pump stations, power stations, shipping and drainage and irrigation of farmland, etc. It is essential for such type of pump to have clear water or other liquid with similar properties of clear water.
The pumps function with the concept of creating a partial vacuum by pumping away air from an enclosed area. When air from this area is withdrawn from the area, a vacuum created forces liquid to rise. Thus, when pump works, a liquid is moved from one area to another. There is a wide number of purposes and applications for the suction pump. The design of the suction pump often becomes a complicated issue with the engineer. The use of the centrifugal force to bring in water to the surface level is an important factor here. The size of the pipes needs to be larger than the connection of the pumps, and if the velocity is higher than 8 feet per second then it can be detrimental to the life circle of the pump. This should be noted well before the actual installation is done.